National 5G spectrum assignment

Between July 2017 and September 2017, RTR launched a public consultation on 5G spectrum auctions.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies

2017


190 MHz

200 MHz


 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

3.4-3.8 GHz

In February 2018, RTR held a third consultation (after a second mid-2017 on the auction design) on the  award procedure for the frequency band 3.4–3.8 GHz, comprising 190 MHz within the 3410 MHz-3600 MHz range and 200 MHz in the 3600 MHz-3800 MHz band (designated for 5G broadband services). Spectrum caps per operator, coverage requirements and minimum bids are mentioned (spectrum cap of 140 MHz to 160 MHz per operator, provision of up to 1,000 locations with 5G, 50% coverage by mid-2020, 100% by year-end 2021, depending on the frequency and the region considered, minimum bids of around 30 MEUR).

5G spectrum auctions (Simple Clock Auctions or SCA) are scheduled for October 2018. Licenses will be valid 20 years, running thus until year-end 2039. The Government expects to get 450 MEUR from these auctions.

700 MHz

RTR earmarked the 700MHz band for 5G services and these frequencies will be available in 2020.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies


2019

2019 - 400 MHz

2019 - 400 MHz


1.5 GHz
 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

3.4-3.8 GHz

In 2017, IPBT stated it intends to auction 400 MHz of spectrum in 3.4-3.8 GHz frequencies as soon as possible. Licenses would be valid until 2040.

In June 2018, IBPT mentioned it will allocated 5G trial licenses before true spectrum auctions to be held in in 3.4-3.8 GHz and 700 MHz bands in 2019.

Other frequencies

IBPT also considers 700 MHz and 1400-1500 MHz frequencies for 5G.

All in all, the Belgium Government expects to collect 679 MEUR from 5G auctions.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies






 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done
5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies






 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done
5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies






 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done
5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies



2019 - 700 MHz

July 2017


+ 450 MHz
 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

3.7 GHz

The Czech telecoms regulator auctioned 3.7GHz spectrum in July 2017, with bids far above the reserve prices. The regulator set a cap of 40 MHz of spectrum each incumbent player could get while new entrants were restricted to a maximum 80 MHz per operator. O2 (3680 MHz-3720 MHz), Vodafone (3600 MHz-3640 MHz) and new player PODA (3640 MHz-3680 MHz) each won a block of 40 MHz and another new entrant, Nordic Telecom 5G, acquired 80 MHz of spectrum in two blocks (3720-3760 & 3760-3780 MHz). The price for each spectrum block reached 7 times the reserve price. Each 40 MHz block was sold for 203 MCZK (~7.9 MEUR), for a total of 1.015 BCZK (~39 MEUR). Spectrum licences will be valid 15 years until 2033.

The price for 3.7 GHz spectrum reached 1.2 EUR/MHz/PoP for 10 years.

At the same time, CTU was about to reallocate spectrum in the 450 MHz band (451.3 MHz–455.74 MHz & 461.3MHz–465.74 MHz), currently owned by O2. CTU has invited the operator to submit an application, fixing the minimum price of 210 MCZK (~8 MEUR) for the new licences.

3.5 GHz

The CTU is expected to auction off 700 MHz and 3.5 GHz spectrum in 2019.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies






 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done
5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies






 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done
5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies






 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

3.4-3.8 GHz

In May 2018, the Finland’s Ministry of Transport and Communications launched a consultation on plans to make available 5G-suitable spectrum in the 3.5GHz band (3410-3800 MHz).

3.4-3.8 GHz spectrum auctions began on September 26, 2018 and ended on October 1st, 2018. The same amount of spectrum was proposed for sale in three licences valid from January 1st, 2019 to 2033.

The 130 MHz licences were awarded to the three players in place. The 3410-3540 MHz slot was allocated to Telia Finland at 30.3 million EUR. Elisa paid 26.3 million EUR for the 3540-3670 MHz range. DNA paid 21 million EUR for frequencies in 3670-3800 MHz.

Overall, the auction raised 77.6 million EUR, a fairly reasonable amount, in line with government base prices.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies

2018

2015




1.5 GHz
 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

Following a public consultation closed in February 2018, the French NRA announced mid-2017 its intention to upgrade wireless local loops with a portion of the 3.5 GHz band and to dedicate the rest of the 3.4-3.8 GHz spectrum to MNOs for 5G trials and rollouts.

A public consultation on award procedures and sequencing is scheduled for October 2018.

1.5 GHz

A public consultation on the 1.5 GHz band is expected during summer 2018.

3.4-3.8 GHz

In the 3400-3800 MHz band, frequencies are available in the metropolitan areas of Lyon, Bordeaux, Nantes, Lille, Le Havre, Saint-Étienne, Douai, Montpellier and Grenoble (list may change).

In June 2017, ARCEP invited players to conduct 5G trials via a sub-band of 80 MHz in the 3.60-3.68 GHz.

ARCEP awarded temporary 3.5 GHz licences to Orange and Bouygues Telecom to achieve their 5G trials:

  • The French NRA authorised Orangeto use spectrum in the 3.5 GHz band for 5G trials for 12 months starting June 2018 in two cities (Lille, Douai)
  • BouyguesTelecomwas awarded a temporary licence in the 3.6-3.7 GHz band, valid until September 2020 for 5G pilots in three cities (Bordeaux, Lyon, and Villeurbanne).
  • Orange received approval for using 3.7-3.8 GHz spectrum for 5G trials in June 2018.

26 GHz

In May 2018, ARCEP launched a public consultation on opening up the 26 GHz pioneer band to 5G.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies


2015




 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

In January 2018, the Bundesnetzagentur unveiled its intention to make 3.6 GHz spectrum available for 5G as from 1stJanuary 2022 (as from 2019 at an earlier stage).

3.4-3.8 GHz

Spectrum in the 3.4-3.8 GHz will be auctioned.

  • 300 MHz will be made available on a nationwide basis.
  • Up to 100 MHz in the 3.7-3.8 GHz frequencies will be reserved for regional/local assignments.
5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies






 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

3.4-3.8 GHz

EETT renewed the OTE’ s license consisting of 2×30 MHz in 3.4-3.8 GHz frequencies (3440-3470 – 3540-3570 MHz) in March 2014 for 2,542 MEUR. Spectrum is valid as from 2016. The other licensees Craig Wireless and Hellas did not bid.

Following a public consultation, EETT indicated in March 2018 it would aware 5G trial licences in 3.4-3.8 GHz frequencies over 2018 and 2019 with the award of spectrum in the last quarter 2019.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies



2016 - 160 MHz

+


+ 1.5 GHz
 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

NMHH expects to auction off spectrum in several bands, including the 700 MHz and 1400-1500 MHz bands soon.

3.4-3.6 GHz

In June 2016, NMHH awarded 16 blocks of 2×5 MHz in 3.4-3.6 GHz and 40 blocks of 5 MHz TDD at 3.4-3.6 GHz in a sealed bid to the two only bidders Vodafone and Digi. Vodafone secured 60 MHz of spectrum for 648.6 million HUF (~2 MEUR). Digi paid 248 million HUF (~760 KEUR) for 20 MHz.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies



2017

2017


 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

3.4-3.8 GHz

ComReg auctioned 350 MHz of spectrum in 3.4-3.8 GHz frequenciesin May 2017 (#42&43, 25 MHz A block:3410-3455 MHz and 65 B blocks of 5 MHz each: 3475-3800 MHz) on a regional basis. 78 MEUR were raised. All five licenses are valid 15 years, from 1stAugust 2017 to 31stJuly 2032. Vodafone got 85 MHz in rural regions, 105 MHz in the cities for 22.73 million EUR. Three obtained 100 MHz nationally for 20.37 MEUR. Meteor Mobile paid 15.66 MEUR for 80 MHz in rural areas and 85 MHz in urban areas. Imagine Communications paid 9.77 MEUR for 60 MHz in each of the rural regions where it operates as a fixed wireless provider. Airspan obtained 25 MHz in the rural regions and 60 MHz in the cities for 9.63 MEUR.

700 MHz

700 MHz auctions are expected to take place in 2019.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies

Dec. 2017, Feb. 2018

60 MHz September 2018


200 MHz September 2018

1,000 MHz September 2018

 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

Mid-2017, the Italian NRA made spectrum in 3.4-3.8 GHz band available for 5G trials.

Spectrum in the 700 MHz (694MHz-790MHz), 3.6GHz-3.8GHz and 26.5GHz-27.5GHz bands was auctioned in September and October 2018. The whole auction ended after 14 days of intense bidding, far above expectations, reaching 6.55 billion EUR of which 4 billion EUR for the highly-coveted mid-frequencies.

3.6-3.8 GHz

The mi-band auction ended on October 2nd, 2018, 14 days after start and 171 rounds. Telecom Italia and Vodafone won the largest blocks of spectrum (80 MHz each) for approx.1.7 billion EUR each. Respectively they paid 1.694 billion EUR and 1.685 billion EUR. Wind and Iliad paid 483.9 million EUR each for 20 MHz of spectrum each (483.92 million EUR for Wind and 483.9 million EUR for Illiad). Overall, the 3.7 GHz auction hit over 4 billion EUR reaching 4.3 billion EUR. The average price of spectrum closed at 18 cEUR/MHz/PoP/10 years significantly higher than in the UK or in Spain.

Licences start as of December 1st, 2018.

700 MHz

The 700 MHz auction process ended mid-September 2018. 700 MHz frequencies raised globally 2.04 billion EUR. Telecom Italia announced it had paid 680.2 million EUR for 2×10 MHz. Illiad paid 676.5 million EUR for 2×10 MHz. Vodafone spent 683.2 million EUR for 2×10 MHz. Licenses are valid 15 years, starting on July 1st, 2022.

26 GHz

1,000 MHz of the 26.5GHz-27.5GHz spectrum (split into five lots of 200 MHz) was auctioned in September 2018. The process ended on October 2nd, 2018, 14 days after start. The auction for 26 GHz frequencies have not shown a huge interest by players. The five lots were allocated, raising a total of 167.3  million EUR. Telecom Italia paid its slot 33 million EUR, Illiad received another lot for a little less at 32.9 million EUR, while Fastweb, Wind and Vodafone paid 32.6 million EUR each.

Licenses will be valid until 2037 with the right of use to start as of December 1st, 2018.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies



2017

2017


 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

3.4-3.8 GHz

SRPK auctioned off spectrum in the 3.4-3.8 GHz frequencies in November 2017. LMT was the sole bidder. It got the two blocks of 50 MHz for sale at 3450-3650 MHz & 3650-3700 MHz for the reserve price of 250,000 EUR each. The licenses are valid for ten years, from 1stJanuary 2019 to 31stDecember 2028.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies

2018





3.8-4.2 GHz
 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

3.4-3.8 GHz & 3.8-4.2 GHz

RRT opened a public consultation on the use of 3.4-3.8 GHz and 3.8-4.2 GHz frequenciesfrom April to May 2018.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies

2018





1.5 GHz
900/1800 MHz
 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

ILR launched a public consultation on the “Allotment and Allocation Plan for Radio Frequencies” from June 2018 to July 2018. The proposed new plan takes into consideration three new EC decisions, including decision UE 2018/661 on 1.5 GHz frequencies (1427-1452 & 1492-1517 MHz), decision UE 2018/637 on 900 and 180 MHz frequencies, decision UE 2017/899 on 700 MHz frequencies (470-790 MHz).

700 MHz

ILR launched a public consultation on 700 MHz frequencies from August to September 2017.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies






800 MHz
 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

In November 2017, the MCA released an update of its strategy for 2018-2020. Main tasks include:

  • Awarding 800 MHz and continuing process to clear 700 MHz band.
  • Publishing and commencing implementation of the National Spectrum Management Strategy.
  • Continuing scoping work on spectrum earmarked for 5G. nManaging information as the means to promote competition.
  • Continue making the case for assumption of ex-post competition regulation powers.
  • Maintaining the compliance framework set at safeguarding a competitive environment

In June 2018, the MCA released the National Roadmapfor the UHF band between 470-790 MHz. The 700 MHz band will be made available for commercial WBB mobile services as from June 2021. The roadmap follows a public consultationheld between April 23rdand May 22nd, 2018.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies






2100/1400 MHz
 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

In an announcement dated June 2018, the national multi-band auction of spectrum (700/1400/2100 MHz) initially expected in autumn 2019 is rescheduled in 2020.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies

2018





 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

In July 2018, UKE launched a consultationregarding 5G spectrum management. Comments are accepted until 8 August 2018.

700 MHz

UKE plans to released 700 MHz (703-733/758-788 MHz) frequencies until June 2020. 2×30 MHz spectrum should be dedicated to Poland-wider licenses by blocks of 5 MHz in FDD mode.

3.4-3.6 GHz

For the 3.4-3.6 GHz band, the objectives are to re-organise the band and release at least 150 MHz for 5G (until 2025) by blocks of 5 MHz in TDD mode. For the 3.6-3.8 GHz band, UKE plans to allocate 200 MHz of spectrum to Poland-wide licenses by blocks of 5 MHz in TDD mode (until 2023 at the latest).

26 GHz

The band re-organization is envisioned.

Other frequencies

UKE also defines spectrum slots available for tests in 3.7 GHz, 3.5 GHz and 700 MHz frequencies.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies

2018





450 MHz
900 MHz
1500 MJz
1800 MHz
2100 MHz
2.6 GHz
 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

ANACOM released a public consultation on 5G spectrum between March and April 2018.

Frequencies considered by ANACOM are the 700 MHz. Other frequencies under consideration included 450 MHz, 900 MHz, 1500 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2100 MHz, 2.6 GHz, 3.6 GHz and 26 GHz.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies

2018





 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

700 MHz

ANCOM launched a public consultation between May and June 2018 in which it envisioned to auction off 700 MHz spectrum for 5G by year-end 2019 (2×30 MHz FDD in 703-733 MHz & 758-788 MHz) and 15 MHz (738-753 MHz) for SDL. Licenses would be valid as from June 30th, 2020.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies

2018


2015

2017


 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

3.4-3.6 GHz

In August 2015 national 3.4-3.6 GHz licences were granted to O2 (2×20 MHz) and SWAN (2×10 MHz) in the 3.4-3.6 GHz band.

 

3.6-3.8 GHz

In October 2017, RU held a regional auction of 40 MHz blocks in 3.6-3.8 GHz frequencies. Licenses were acquired by 16 bidders including Amtel Slovensko (61 districts), Slovanet (47), Towercom (eight), DSI DATA (six), O2 Slovakia (six), HMZRadiokomunikacie (three) and ORANET (two), while Alternet, E-MAX INTERNET & IT, Fibris, OravaNet, PEGOSlovakia, Prva internetova, RUPKKI, Slovak Telekom and Wircom all took up concessions in one district. The spectrum is valid until year-end 2024.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies






 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

3.4-3.8 GHz

Slovenia has been offering 5G trial licenses in 3.4-3.8 GHz frequencies since July 2017.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies



2016

2018


 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

3.4-3.6 GHz

The 3.4-3.6 GHz spectrum has already been awarded for 5G services (2016, licenses are valid until 2030). Four licenses have 2×20 MHz of spectrum. The remaining 2×20 MHz are used for radiolocation and guard bands.

3.6-3.8 GHz

The 3.6-3.8 GHz spectrum auction was held in July 2018. The spectrum was divided into fourty 5 MHz blocks (total of 200 MHz), each of which will have a starting price of 2.5 million EUR. A spectrum cap was set at 120 MHz maximum per player.

 

700 MHz

Discussions are ongoing on the 700 MHz band.

26 GHz

Use of the 26 GHz spectrum during the pilot projects will be eased to analyse its potential. The band might be rearranged in order to call a future tender.

5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies






1.5/2.6 GHz
 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

700 MHz

In July 2018, PTS invited applications for the 700 MHz frequencies auction.  Applications can be made until November 5th. The auction is scheduled to begin on December 4th, 2018. 60 MHz of spectrum is on sale, split into two lots of 2×5 MHz (713MHz-718MHz/768MHz-773MHz and 718MHz-723MHz/773MHz-778MHz) and one lot of 2×10 MHz (723MHz-733MHz/778MHz-788MHz, with coverage obligations), plus four 5 MHz blocks for SDL (738MHz-743MHz, 743MHz-748MHz, 748MHz-753MHz and 753MHz-758MHz). The reserve price is 50 MSEK (4.9 MEUR) per 5 MHz. A cap per player has been defined at 40 MHz maximum to ensure at least two players to get frequencies. The awarded licenses will come into effect on 1st January 2019 and will be valid until 31 December 2040.

3.4-3.8 GHz

200 MHz of spectrum in 3.4-3.6 GHz frequencies were made available for 5G trials in April 2017.

PTS plans to auction off 3.4-3.8 GHz frequencies in 2019. 300 MHz (3.4-3.7 GHz) will be on sale on a nationwide basis (with a selection procedure) and the remaining 100 MHz (3.7-3.8 GHz) will be reserved for regional licenses (without a selection procedure).

26.5-27.5 GHz

1000 MHz of spectrum in 24.5-27.5 GHz frequencies were made available for 5G trials in April 2017.

PTS considers auctioning 26.5-27.5 GHz frequencies.

Other frequencies

  • 5 GHz and 2.3 GHz bands. The licence award is planned for 2019 or later.
  • 6 GHz band. The licence award is planned for 2021 or later.
5G spectrum consultation 700 MHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz >24 GHz Other frequencies



2018



1.5/2.6 GHz
 : earmarked,  : ongoing process,  : allocation procedure scheduled,  : done

700 MHz (694-790 MHz)

The UK Government has invested up to 600 MGBP in making the band available. OFCOM expects to auction it in 2019.

3.4-3.6 GHz

3.4-3.6 GHz spectrum was auctioned in April 2018 to all MNOs at an average price per MHz of 9 cEUR per PoP for 10 years; 3 got 20 MHz (3460-3480 MHz), EE 40 MHz (3540-3580 MHz), Vodafone 50 MHz (3410-3460 MHz) and O2 Telefonica 40 MHz (3500-3540 MHz). With the two slots of 20 MHz used by UK Broadband (3480-3500 MHz & 3580-3600 MHz) for a number of years, the band has been fully allocated.

3.6-3.8 GHz

OFCOM plans to auction unused spectrum in the 3.6-3.8 GHz frequencies in 2019-2020.

26 GHz (24.25-27.5 GHz)

OFCOM called for inputs on 26 GHz spectrum in July 2017.

57-91 GHz

In July 2018, OFCOM opened up a consultation on 57-71 GHz frequencies.

Latest News in Europe

Draft 5G auction conditions in Germany

The BundesNetzAgentur released 5G auction draft conditions awaiting final validation in November 26, 2018.

5G in the UK: EE expands 5G trials while 3 UK reveals a £2 billion investment plan

EE announced the opening of nine sites for 5G NR trials, and 3 UK announced an investment plan for the development and commercial launch of 5G services

700MHz auctions planned for 2019 in Spain and Belgium

The frequency band will be gradually released for 5G applications by March 2020 in Spain

Vodafone announced its 5G partners in Germany

Vodafone Germany partners up with Deutsche Bahn and automobile firms for the first 5G mast in the country.

ARCEP consultation: 5G and Innovation

ARCEP launched a public consultation on 5G spectrum allocation methods and conditions

ESA actions in the 5G field

How to get ESA funding for trials combining 5G with space applications in the context of 5Groningen?

Deutsche Telekom has taken another step towards commercial 5G launch

Deutsche Telekom announced a network partnership with Telefonica in October 2018 and an eight-point plan on 5G for Germany.

Italian 5G spectrum auction

The auction on 21 September raised 4.42 billion EUR, of which 2.2 billion EUR for mid-range frequencies

3.4-3.8 GHz auctions in Finland

The 130 MHz licences were awarded to the three different players

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